Sunday, January 21, 2018

2017: Year in Review


     Well, it is hard to believe, but we have been here living in Japan for about nine months now. April 2018 will mark our one year anniversary for this term! For me this will be coming up on year two for total Japan experience while for my wife it will be year eight! Looking back on the past year has brought back a lot of good memories. This was technically our first year as parents as well as a missionary family living in Japan. What has been happening over the last year?
     
     Starting last January as a family we started to travel together with our 3 month old baby (at that time) to complete our deputation. We did not know how long we would be raising support, but we were at that time at about 85% of our support needed to come back to Japan. As we continued to pray about when we were to go back to Japan, the end of April kept coming up. We were both convinced from God that we were to go back April 28th, 2017, so we started to tell churches that as we continued to raise support. After a lot of time spent praying, calling, and emailing we scheduled new meetings throughout Georgia as well as other areas for January, February, March, and April. We did not know what would happen, but it was exciting as more churches and individual supporters decided to be a part of reaching Japan. Thank you again for being faithful to the Lord, and making it possible for us to be here!
     
     Amazingly, coming back to Japan April 28th, 2017 was certainly a change for us as we had been deputation-minded since we left in June 2015. We took some time to adjust from the jet-lag then went into ministry immediately. My wife has been primarily taking care of our daughter, but has also spent a lot of time doing ministry with young mothers as well as meeting with many Japanese women. She has a really amazing God-given ability to connect with strangers that has proven to be encouraging to this body of believers in Japan. She has been relentlessly doing the work of the missionary while balancing her time with God and our daughter. She is a huge blessing. Our baby has been growing up quickly going from crawling to walking to talking! We have been careful to be balanced with our time so as to not burn out with the long-term work in mind. My time in Japan has been primarily spent in language classes, helping people in our church, discipling, and attempting to evangelize people whom I often do not share a common-language with! If I cannot yet communicate well with them, then perhaps a gospel tract can!
     
     Since coming back I have been convicted to make sure every person that I come across in an interaction gets a gospel tract no matter what. I have also made a Japanese website  to help in this way. The '10-40' window has the least amount of Christians anywhere on the planet. If Japan truly has only a ½ percent born-again Christian population , then gospel tracts are a must in daily interactions. Also in recent months I have been thinking about the Chinese, Vietnamese, Koreans, and other English speakers here in Tokyo. This has led me to order some tracts for each of those respective groups as well. We do not know how long we will be alive, nor how long our work will be allowed here in Japan, so we must be diligent with every chance that we get. With this in mind we have given out over 30,000 tracts in the last 9 months, which is about 28 boxes of tracts shipped from the USA! Even with this number in mind we must realize that it does not even begin to reach the estimated 38 million people that live in and around Tokyo, nor the other millions who visit each month.

     
     Overall, it has been good time in our world's present situation to be back in Japan. We sense that lives are being impacted for Christ. I have now easily put in enough time with Japanese to do what it takes for an English speaker to fully learn Spanish. (500+hours) Just to give some perspective, I now will need to put in another 1700+ hours of study! Your prayers are much appreciated! We certainly could not do a lot of this work without your prayers. We pray for more years to come to continue ministry in this land. God bless.

Saturday, December 16, 2017

Japan Culture Series 15: Kisetsu



Given its balanced geographical location on the globe, Japan is a country that experiences four distinct seasons. (Some say more if rain season is included.) These distinct seasons known as Kisetsu have greatly influenced Japanese life. One of the finer experiences of living in Japan comes from learning to appreciate the distinct seasons. Each season brings its own festivals, foods, and experiences for better or for worse. For instance where we live here in Tokyo the summer season is wet and humid followed by intense levels of heat. The remedy? Light summer clothing, cool fruits, hand-fans, and parasols to avoid the sun. When the season ends new foods as well as new expectations arise. As Americans we are used to being able to buy anything at any time of the year, however here in Japan it is expected to patiently wait for certain products to come into season. For instance fall is kaki season, while unagi is eaten in the summer. Japanese enjoy the building anticipation that comes from waiting for their seasonal favorites each year! How about the celebrations?

While in language classes a teacher described the importance of the four seasons here. In the springtime a popular event is hanami , or flower viewing. Special time is set aside to view the cherry blossoms with your friends. It is expected to eat a meal and drink alcohol near a cherry blossom tree during this time. In the summertime a variation of obon and tanabata are celebrated as was described in a previous blog. In the fall, harvest festivals rein as the local people thank the local deities for their harvest. These festivals are recognized worldwide as those in which people carry idols throughout the streets while dancing and celebrating. Finally, in the wintertime New Years is the large festival in which families adorn their houses with Shinto items and prepare a famous mochi rice soup to eat while watching the new years celebration at a famous Shinto temple taking place on TV. If people do not stay home during this time they will typically gather at a local temple to await the new years blessing. These seasonal celebrations form the dominant Japanese culture. As an American it is somewhat refreshing to see unity displayed through the various seasonal celebrations here. It is also interesting to note that Japanese people do not have any problems saying 'Merry Christmas' during the Christmas season!


How do Christians live during the seasons? It is no secret that a serious life set apart for Christ can be difficult in face of the world's culture. For Japanese Christians a real distinction must be made since their society is so different from Christianity. Most Japanese who are serious about their faith will avoid participating in any festivals that bring into question anything that may be an affront to the Savior. Instead, Christians will often have their own holidays to celebrate or will celebrate holidays without the Shinto or Buddhist influences. Unfortunately there is much pressure by the larger culture here for Christians to conform whether it be in school, work, or daily life. Please pray for Japanese Christians as they face the pressures of living here during the seasons! 

Monday, November 20, 2017

Japan Culture Series 14: Omiai




     To those who closely follow trends that occur in Japan the talk of population decline will inevitably come up. As reported masterfully in this article, modern marriage has become increasingly unappealing. Traditionally, a man could find a good career to provide while his wife stayed at home to raise the children. Now that many women have greater access to the job market they are choosing to forego marriage altogether, which has created a steady decline in population. Given that a great majority of people in Japan are now engaged in a career, there exist few opportunities to form a “love marriage”. In the Western world a relationship formed upon love seems to be the primary motive for marriage. However in many Eastern countries, arranged marriages have historically been common practice.

      In Japan the concept is known as 'Omiai', that is, arranged marriage. It is becoming increasingly popular given the modern situation that many Japanese people find themselves in. With great emphasis placed upon economic success often times thoughts of a family become low priority. Traditionally, arranged marriages worked in local areas where people knew each other through family connections. Later the heads of the families determined marital arrangements that would best suite the long term goals of the family prosperity without considering the individual as much. Now families or individuals can hire a go between to connect interested parties. After viewing a database full of potential suitors each party must agree to meet up. They then meet successively and determine whether to further the process to marriage. If interest is determined the man will send gifts which include an engagement ring and money. The interested parties will then typically get married in a Shinto ceremony.

      With the divorce rates in Japan a lot lower than in the United States it is hard to fault Omiai as a bad choice! Although it does have its dark side. We know a woman here who under much pressure from her family decided to go along with an Omiai only to have it end in an unfortunate divorce as well as increased mental issues from which she has not yet recovered. However for each sad story there are likely stories of success. Here in Japan with such a small percentage of Christians the practice of Omiai may not be out of the realm of possibility for some. Although personally, I think that large annual fellowships within denomination are a good way to meet people here in Japan. The most important element here for the Christian minority is to stay strong in their convictions not to marry a non-believer. Please pray that Japanese Christians would be able to remain strong in their commitments to the Lord.

Saturday, October 21, 2017

Pachinko


     It was about 9:40 AM as I was biking my way to my morning language class when I noticed a long line of people outside of a massive building. What are these people waiting for? They were the dedicated followers of Japan's biggest casino-like craze known as Pachinko. Pachinko is Japan's closest resemblance to legalized gambling. A mix of pinball, slot-machine, and video game all with the piercing loud sounds of something like a chaotic battleground encompass the user! ( https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K4ITrsWiyvk ) This addicting adrenaline rush keeps the hapless user coming back for more.

      Anyone recalling our missionary presentation given in America will remember the mention of Pachinko. Why is it so popular? My thoughts are that for many it is an escape from the monotonous everyday life of the average Japanese person who does not know God. In the same way that Americans are drawn into casinos, many Japanese are addicted to Pachinko. The only difference being that multiple Pachinko parlors are in every city across Japan. It is well known that building space as well as energy are not cheap in Japan. Literally thousands of dollars have to keep flowing through these massive places each day to keep them operating. No doubt this has a great impact upon the spiritual well-being of many Japanese.

      How can these people be ministered to? Being from Montana one quickly becomes accustomed to seeing multiple casinos everywhere. I recall an old co-worker with four children going to gamble her paycheck away. This is a reality for many that we often do not think about. While living in Montana I used to pray over casinos near my house and leave gospel tracts in them. Here in Japan I am convinced that the same thing needs to be done. I have started by handing out gospel tracts to the people in line at the Pachinko parlor that I bike by every week. I have also started to walk in and leave gospel tracts in them as it is often too loud to talk to people. Just near my apartment there are four large parlors that I am aware of. Please pray for those addicted to this lifestyle. Also, consider the casinos in your own areas. Perhaps it is time to start praying for those people as well. Every small act counts.

Saturday, September 23, 2017

Rural Japanese Christianity



This month we had the opportunity to travel outside of Tokyo and the main island we live on, to visit some Japanese friends in Oita City, Kyushu, Japan. The husband was originally from Oita, so they decided to return there about a year ago to help their father's small church that had been planted by an American missionary in the 1970s. It was a good reminder for us to realize that outside of Tokyo in the 'real Japan' life is a lot more challenging for Japanese Christians. It was also a good reminder for us that there are very few Christians in Japan.

Historically, the island of Kyushu had a reputation for being open to the initial Jesuit arrivals in the 1500s. So much so that the Daimo, or regional ruler converted to their cause. Oita City historically had been converted to the Jesuit cause at that time as well. However, tragically, later the entire Jesuit converted population was put to death by the Shogun. This history has been preserved to this day as a reminder of 'misfortune' for those who dare depart from the established traditions. In more recent times the city of Nagasaki, which is also located on Kyushu island, was known to be a 'Christian'city', despite being a weapons production center during World War two. Historically, it was one of the cities that received complete atomic destruction. So, in the mind of many Japanese who are aware of history, Christianity is met with caution especially in more rural areas.

Our friend's church which has been in existence since the 1970s has about ten people that attend it. It is not because they are not good ministers, or not faithful; it is just the spiritual reality of their area. In a small city there is great pressure not to depart from the ancient traditions, even if a person does not believe in them any longer. Local rituals, traditions, and beliefs are strongly tied to success as well as abiding by the wishes of departed ancestors. Even though there may be interest in Christianity, many do not want to risk being hated or shunned by their family. Outside of urban areas family ties are viewed as more crucial to daily life. The pastor told us that the church had a lot of opposition when they moved to a new property, but that the local people eventually accepted them after many tense years. They are especially hated for refusing to take part in the local matsuri festivals which include many forms of spirit worship to the local deities. Though their church is small it has its advantages. One advantage to a small church comes in the form of strong spiritual unity and care for one another under difficult conditions. For that we could learn from them just what really is important. A new generation is now ministering with new ideas on how to reach the area. The pastors advice to us after thirty years there in the ministry was to not give up. Please pray for the believers near the Oita City area!

Sunday, August 20, 2017

Japan Culture Series 13: Hedataru to Najimu



To a degree whether we realize it or not our personal space plays a key role in our daily relationships with one another. For instance, in the United States we recognize that it is wise to set boundaries in our relationships with co-workers. Most people would probably not share a lot of personal details of their lives with a co-worker as opposed to a spouse. We tend to setup boundaries within our social interactions to govern our daily lives. To move from a casual acquaintance to a close friendship requires that we go through certain invisible social steps all the while paying close attention to social cues of each party involved so as to see whether it be possible to gain a closer relationship or to maintain the present casual acquaintance.

In Japan this process can be described with two terms, Hedataru and Najimu. Hedataru means to separate or set apart while Nijimu means to become attached to or familiar with. Relationships in Japan begin with a distance known as Hedatari, then move through Hedatari, and move into the closeness of Najimu. Moving through these stages requires much time, restraint, and patience. Unlike the United States or Latin cultures where relationships can be developed rather quickly, in Japan it seems to take a lot of time. Japanese people tend to keep at a distance as many of their social interactions tend to be far more formal. From the student to the teacher, the customer to the dealer, or the child to the parent much distance as well as formality is observed by default. With a more formal society it not only takes more time to develop close relationships, but it is also more rare of an occurrence. To be invited to someone's house for instance is not only rare, but also indicates that a major change in relationship has occurred. Once Najimu has been established trust will increase. Interestingly enough, since Japan is a highly formal society there are outlets seen as necessary for shedding Hedataru with strangers such as drinking together as well as attending the Onsen together without clothing!

As missionaries it takes considerable time for us to establish relationships not only as foreigners, but also in respect to Japanese societal norms. If we fail to observe these customs we will be seen as barbarians, much akin to something like walking into a five star hotel without shoes or a shirt on! Imagine the embarrassment! However, once relationships are established Japanese tend to be far more open to the gospel. It appears that they tend to get truth from relationships rather than objective sources much like the post-modernist person does in the western world. This could be one of the reasons why it takes more time for Japanese people to become Christians. We must remember to remain firm in keeping our testimonies which includes avoiding drinking, Onsens, and local pagan-rooted festivities. Unfortunately to Non-Christian Japanese these choices can all be seen as blocks to establishing a friendship. However, we will continue to trust God. Please pray for us as we continue to build relationships with Japanese people.  

Friday, July 21, 2017

Obon Festival



What would you do if Halloween, Thanksgiving, and Memorial day were all combined together into one holiday? Would you forgo that new holiday because of the dark spiritual elements? Would you ignore the spiritual aspects and celebrate family time? This is the dilemma many Christians in Japan face each summer as Obon, the Buddhist holiday for honoring the spirits of dead ancestors, is celebrated beginning on either July 15th or August 15th (depending on the region where one resides), and continuing after for three days. Obon is one of the three major holidays celebrated in Japan each year with strong emphasis made upon family gatherings, feasts, and dances to summon as well as worship dead ancestor spirits returning to earth. (Similar to Dia de Muertos in Mexico as well as parts of the USA now.)

With Japan being a group-oriented society it is expected that much pressure be exerted upon everyone to partake in this holiday. (Imagine if you told your church friends that you refused to celebrate Thanksgiving!) The spiritual climate in Japan during this time can feel quite heavy and ominous over the entire country, which likely has to do with invoking 'spirits'. Some Christians choose to forgo the spiritual elements, refusing to worship dead spirits, but will go and spend time with their families in a “Thanksgiving” like manner. Other Christians are okay with participating in the holiday and think nothing of being involved in pagan practices either out of ignorance, defiance, or 'liberty'. Very few if any churches provide an alternative to help Christians at this time. In the USA often times when Halloween comes many churches will do “Reformation Day”, “All Saints Day”, or “Harvest Festivals”. In Japan when Obon arrives there appears to be a time of silence as no one really knows what to do. New Christians likely talk to their pastor to see what their options are or avoid the issue completely. Such is the strength of societal pressures in Japan upon the individual.

Personally, in one of my language classes I told a teacher that I am Christian and would not be participating in any Obon festivals in class. This was met with shock followed by the explanation that it is just a fun holiday, but that no one really believes in spirits anymore. Ironically, on the day that I missed out on, they learned the Bon Odori, which is known as the dance to welcome the dead spirits! On another class occasion we were to make 'wish' cards which are tied to a tree. Essentially these are 'prayer requests' to certain deities. Again, I was told that it was just a fun tradition, but that they did not really believe it. They then went around the room and had everyone share what their wish was. Of course when they got to me, I didn't say anything for awhile. Then after much prodding, I told them that my wish was that many Japanese people would become Christians! That was met by much reaction! This was quite a pressure-filled experience for me, but was only a small experience of what it is like for Japanese Christians here in this society. Before we jump up and say, “Well I would have told them...!”, I think it is good to pray for our Japanese Christian brethren and realize what it is like in a country that is only one percent Christian! Though the pressures here may be difficult, the good side-effect is that most Christians here are extremely dedicated to their beliefs once they completely understand them. Please pray for Japan as well as Japanese Christians as they face Obon each year!

                                                          (Prayer Tree - Tanzaku

Sunday, June 18, 2017

Japanese Culture Series 12: Iitoko-Dori



Japan is known throughout the world as a country that blends ancient traditions together with modern life into one society. How is this even possible? This is what the Japanese call Iitoko-Dori, and it resonates strongly within Japanese culture. From ancient times Japanese culture has been known to blend elements together from differing world-views to create a unique society. At one time in ancient history Japan was at the end of the Silk Road, which made it the place where many ideas ended up. Traditionally a Shinto nation, Japan later encountered Buddhism as well as Confucianism and Christianity. The 'best' elements were taken from each world-view to combine together into a uniquely Japanese culture. The harmonizing of seemingly conflicting ideas took precedence over focusing on any one idea as the only or best truth to behold.

As Japan opened up to the world during the Meiji Era its leaders realized that they needed to modernize rapidly. During this era they gathered information from Western nations in order to carefully chose the elements of those societies that they deemed were the best and set forth to modernize Japan. Unlike other countries with ancient traditions, they were successfully able to rapidly change their nation while retaining many ancient beliefs. After World War 2 Japan was able to quickly adopt a new belief system of materialism and rapidly rebuild their nation while keeping to many of their ancient beliefs. Even today Japan is known as a country that tries to find the best ideas from other nations to either absorb or improve upon as noted in the successful automobile and electronics industries.

How can this belief impact missionary work? On the positive side there is very little religious conflict. In Japan the people often have a difficult time believing that there is only one truth. In Japanese society it is perfectly acceptable to hold to multiple religions with conflicting ideas by only holding to parts of each respective system. It is said that Japanese are born Shinto, have a 'Christian' wedding, and a Buddhist funeral. However, when rapidly adapting new ideas there has been little regard for the impacts on the people. For instance in modern Japan material success has become the main goal with the cost being a society in which competition is high from a young age, stress is high, work hours are long, and suicide rates are high. Change is slow in this area since ethics are considered to be relative due to a combination of belief systems. Japanese know that these societal conditions are not normal, but will not speak out against them until the entire group desires a change. Please pray that the Japanese will realize that Iitoko-Dori is not the ultimate truth in life!

Friday, May 19, 2017

Japanese Culture Series 11: Aimai


In every culture communication is vital on all levels for daily functioning. One of the distinct ways in which Western and Eastern cultures differ is in the realm of communication style. For example in the Western world, direct as well as open honest communication has become the basis for building understanding with one another. Western culture tends to generally value truth over harmony in communication. (Although that has been changing with the concept of political correctness!) However, in Japanese society the value of harmony has become the basis for understanding one another when communicating. How is harmony achieved in communication? In the place of truth as the prime value in communicating, Aimai, or obscurity exists as the norm to achieve harmony. Why?

Japanese society in general was built around densely populated amounts of people having to work together closely in a small area for survival, hence the need for harmony became necessary. The group became more important than the individual. In a group setting the need for harmony was said to be more important than truth so as to not cause offense as well as division. This characteristic became evident in the development of Japanese culture as ideas from Hinduism, Buddhism, Shintoism, Confucianism, Taoism, Secular-Humanism, Christianity, and Materialism all blended together with no one 'truth' overriding another. With these strong influences being incorporated into culture the concept of truth became highly obscured which is especially evident in communication. Even to this day Japanese people tend to have a difficult time clearly saying: “Yes” or “No”! Decisions often take a long time since every small detail of each part of the group must be carefully considered for the sake of harmony. In America indecisiveness is considered a great weakness, however in Japan it is considered very wise!

More complexities arise when the vertical hierarchy of Japanese society is included into the equation. For example in new interactions Japanese people carefully try to ascertain what the social ranking of the person they are talking to is so as to not cause offense. To avoid potential offense it became safer to speak ambiguously rather than specifically. Even though Japanese speak in a very obscure as well as ambiguous style, it is a highly valuable trait to be able to discern true intentions. This is called 'reading the air', or the art of understanding what is actually trying to be communicated from the vagueness of what is actually being communicated! For instance, rather than saying 'No', most Japanese will say 'chotto' which being translated means 'it is a little bit hard for me to..'. So, even though the Japanese person is not directly saying 'No' it is generally understood that 'chotto' is a polite way of trying to get out of something! Rather than pressing the matter for details as to why the person is saying 'chotto', most Japanese will be able to 'read the air' and understand not to pursue the topic further!


How can this impact ministry in Japan? On a positive note cooperation with church projects is high because of harmony as well as not wanting to offend in communication. A strong sense of group unity can help a church face adversity as well. However on the negative side, just as in a church in America that practices love and harmony while abandoning truth, so can be life in Japan in the realm of communication – frustrating. General acceptance exists while at the same time making it difficult to understand what people really believe. Truth becomes a matter of group decision. Also, Japanese people without exposure to the West are not used to direct communication, so it can seem barbaric or rude to them when it does happen! (However the new generation is changing because of increased exposure to the West.) Finally, because Japanese people can be afraid of being excluded from the group, they will often 'go along to get along' no matter how bad a situation can become. Please pray for us as we navigate communication in Japan!

Thursday, April 20, 2017

Re-Cap of our time in America



As we embark for Japan again I wanted to take this last blog from the USA to recap our time here since leaving Japan on June 30th, 2015.

When we were leaving Japan Katie had to change her ticket to Asiana airlines so that we could be on the same one-way ticket to Montana from Tokyo. Unfortunately it was a last minute purchase, so she was seated far in back of the plane while I was seated in front next to a bunch of Sikhs that did not speak English! None of them wanted to change seats! So, I will never forget asking the flight attendant if I could move back to an empty seat to which she said only if the person next to the empty seat agreed to it! Fortunately he did! Not only that, he agreed to switch places with Katie who was only a few rows away so that we could sit next to each other for the flight home! Off to a good start!

From there we eventually arrived in Missoula, Montana only to spend the whole month there recovering from jet lag and the reverse-culture shock of coming back to the USA. I then gave my SUV to my mother in exchange for her old Toyota Camary as we would be moving south and would not need a 4-wheel drive vehicle. We then drove from Missoula, MT to New Market, TN to stay with Katie's parents and plan our wedding that would be in three months on October 15th, 2015. At that time her parent's pastor Mr. McE, generously let me live in their apartment house in TN for 3 months! Thank you Pastor! Soon after we got married in a little white country church in TN with just close friends and family attending. After that we went on our honey-moon which ended in Jacksonville, FL on November 1st, 2015. I then officially joined the mission board, and officially became a missionary.

Next, we decided to go help one of our struggling supporting churches in Water Valley, Mississippi for the next three months while staying at their parsonage. This was an excellent experience as we were able to connect with everyone there during a crucial time and were also able to each lead one person to the Lord from the community. With the help of friends we were also able to get our prayer cards, video, poster board, and power point presentations done at this time. Around January 31st, 2016 we moved to GA to live with Pastor Jackson at our sending church. (for me at least, this has always been Katie's sending church). We also found out in January 2016 that Katie would be expecting baby Mary. For the next several months until May we visited every one of Katie's supporting churches so that they could meet me. This took us all around Georgia, to Florida, up to Michigan, across to Maine, and back down to Georgia. As far as we know all of the churches accepted us. During the end of this time we also took a 12 week Bradley Method birthing class in preparation for a home birth.

When July 2016 came around, Katie was over six months along in her pregnancy, so we decided to have her stay with her parents while I drove out to Montana for a month and a half to visit a lot of Montana churches to speak at the MT Bible Camp camp as well as raise support. At this time we got our first new supporting church as a couple. Thank you Berean Baptist in MT! I then came back in August to help Katie prepare to deliver the baby at our place in October. On October 12th, 2016 our baby Mary K was born after almost two days of labor related events at the Pastor's house in Newborn, GA. Thank you again Pastor Jackson! Our healthy baby girl came at 7 pounds 5 ounces and 19 1/2 inches long. Much thanks to our midwife, Debbie, and Katie's mom for coming for 2 weeks to help us during this time! We feel so blessed to be parents to our little Mary! She has brought us so much joy!!!

Before Thanksgiving 2016 we moved to a mission house. Around this time I joined the church officially. We waited until January 2017 before starting to travel to new churches to raise support so that Katie could heal and the baby could grow. From January 2017 to April 2017 we diligently traveled to Florida, Tennesse, and Georgia to raise the rest of our support until we found out that we were at 100% support. We are also thankful for many new individuals who have decided to help us reach our goal. Thank you everyone! It has been a long road with a lot to learn, but the Lord has been good to us in many ways. We were thankful to have our first year married together in the States. Katie was able to to rest and prepare for her new role as a wife and mother overseas, and we praise God that we saw her thyroid issues miraculously healed during this time! I was able to learn to live by faith, study the scriptures, and read a lot of books about both theology and Japanese language as well as culture. We were also able to do a lot of evangelism during our furlough in the form of witnessing, door knocking, and handing out literally thousands of tracts across the country. Please pray for us as we return to Japan as a family for this next term! Thank you for your faithfulness!